I found the concept of the "cobra effect" very interesting and I looked it up. Following the comment you cited, I add the below as an extension to the theory (excerpt from wikipedia, specifically about rats):
"Rats in Vietnam
A similar incident occurred in Hanoi, Vietnam, under French colonial rule. In 1902, the colonial regime created a bounty program that paid a reward for each rat killed. To collect the bounty, people would need to provide the severed tail of a rat.
Colonial officials, however, began noticing rats in Hanoi with no tails. The Vietnamese rat catchers would capture rats, sever their tails, and then release them back into the sewers so that they could procreate and produce more rats, thereby increasing the rat catchers' revenue."
So, I think the cobra effect could indeed be a good foundation for the rats' bounty payment in Rookgaard, considering that it has already happened in real life, interestingly.